10th Anniversary 

作者/Author(s): Josh Baughman and Peter W. Singer 

網站來源/Source: Defense One 

日期/Date: 10/17/2023 

關鍵字/Keywords: Information warfare 



  • 「信息擾動」在社交媒體上散佈特定資訊,操縱目標觀眾對真實情況的理解,從而塑造其立場、決策和行動。 
  • 話語競爭:透過社交媒體平台傳播敘事來影響公眾認知,最終實現政治目的。它操縱偏見和情感心理來影響和深化預期的敘事,希望閱聽者只接受與他們觀點一致的資訊。 
  • 輿論遮蔽在社交媒體平台上大肆傳播理想的敘事,從而壓制其他觀點和新聞的方式。。它利用人工智慧挖掘使用者的情感和偏見,過濾並鎖定最易受影響的觀眾,然後向目標群體投放設定好的話語。最終將造成一個不安全、不確定和不信任的社會。 
  • 信息封鎖攻擊、封鎖或摧毀敵人的訊息傳播渠道,阻止對手傳播資訊或主導和控制資訊。雖然美國在這方面曾經占據極大優勢,但隨著中國社交媒體平台的普及,以及其對全球科技公司的影響力,中國隱隱有追趕美國的趨勢。 

Cognitive warfare rarely pops up in the news, but it is a critical Chinese concept to use social media to target its adversaries. China may use disinformation campaigns to target democratic elections or in a Taiwan conflict. Chinese cognitive warfare is on par with its other military domains, aiming to "conquer the mind" of adversaries and shape the enemies' perception, thus influencing their decisions and actions. Through extensive R&D, China believes social media can shape narratives and cognition over different events and actions due to its expansive usage. A PLA Daily article outlines social media tactics to manipulate information production, eventually shaping audiences' preferences over different events. 
Examples of Social Media Tactics: 
  • Information Disturbance (信息擾動): Circulating specific information on social media to manipulate the target audiences' comprehension of the real situation, thus shaping their positions, decisions, and actions. 
  • Discourse Competition (話語競爭): A quieter and slower approach to shaping cognition by spreading narratives through social media platforms to affect public perception, which eventually achieves a war of political goals. It manipulates biases and emotional psychology to affect and deepen a desired narrative, hoping audiences will only accept any information aligned with their perspective. 
  • Public Opinion Blackout (輿論遮蔽): Making a desired narrative viral on social media platforms, thus suppressing alternative opinions and news. It uses AI to mine user emotions and prejudices to filter and target the most vulnerable audiences, then inject customized discourse into the target group. It will eventually create an insecure, uncertain, and mistrustful society. 
  • Blocking Information (信息封鎖): Attack, block, or destroy foes' information communication channels aiming to dominate and control information flow by stopping an adversary from disseminating information. Although the US used to have an advantage, China is turning the tide with the popularity of Chinese social media platforms and its influence on global tech companies. 
China is also seeking greater influence over the next versions of the internet, potentially giving the CCP better control over how its discourse is transmitted. The CCP already has a metaverse strategy, while the US still lacks an overall policy, making it a frontrunner in internet dominance.