The China Project: 美國對半導體出口的控制可能反讓中國獲得優勢(Part 1)

作者:Kyriakos Petrakakos
來源:The China Project
日期:Jun 15, 2023

拜登政府對中國實施了出口管制措施,限制中國使用美國的半導體技術、高階晶片、以及製造這些晶片所需的軟體和設備。而另兩個晶片大國日本和荷蘭則在2023年跟隨美國的腳步,宣布他們計劃對出口先進晶片製造設備實行許可證要求。 這三方的合作極具意義,因為他們是先進晶圓廠設備(WFE)的最大製造商。如果沒有他們的協助,中國將無法生產用於開發人工智慧和5G的先進晶片。為此,中國向世貿組織投訴美國違反貿易協定,要求當地公司停止採購美光晶片。同時,中國中央和地方政府都加大了對國內半導體行業的投資,關鍵問題是,中國能否發展本土的原始設備製造商(OEMs)。


  • 全球頂尖的WFE設備製造商擁有超過40年的經驗,但中國在2006年才開始其半導體研究計劃。
  • 中國制定了產業政策,以實現積體電路的自給自足。。然而,只有很少一部分被用於半導體資本設備製造商,代工廠和整合零件製造商(IDMS)獲得了大部分的投資。當地的製造設備製造商沒有得到多少好處,因為中國的晶片製造商大多進口他們的設備。
  • 中國與國外其他的競爭對手相比後,存在嚴峻的技術劣勢。外國公司更大也更有經驗,並且能夠維持和擴大他們的技術優勢。
  • 國際OEM廠大多擁有兼具深度與廣度的子系統和零件供應商網絡,這對於尖端晶片製造工具而言至關重要,但中國截至目前為止都還未能發展出這樣的生態系統。
  • 由於本土原始設備製造商的低採用率和缺乏經驗,導致大多數公司不願意使用它們,這讓中國面臨著開發尖端工具和填補技術差距的困難。

The Biden Administration implemented export control measures on China, restricting China's access to US semiconductor technologies, advanced chips, and the software and equipment to produce them. Japan and Netherlands followed US footsteps in 2023, announcing their plan to issue licensing requirements to export advanced chipmaking equipment. This tripartite coordination is significant as the US, Japan, and the Netherlands are the largest manufacturers of sophisticated wafer fabrication equipment (WFE). Without them, China cannot produce advanced chips for the development of AI and 5G. As a result, China filed a complaint with WTO against the US for violating trade agreements and asked local companies to stop purchasing Micron chips. The Chinese central and local governments increased their investment in the domestic semiconductor industry. A key question that experts are concerned with is whether China can develop its indigenous original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

China the Latecomer

  • Top WFE equipment manufacturers have over 40 years of experience, but China only started its semiconductor research program in 2006.
  • China formulated industrial policies to achieve self-sufficiency in integrated circuits. However, only a small amount was directed to semiconductor capital equipment makers, while foundries and IDMS received most of the investment. Local fabrication equipment makers did not benefit much as Chinese chipmakers imported their equipment mostly.
  • China has a technological disadvantage compared to its overseas rivals. Foreign firms are also far larger and more experienced; therefore, they can maintain and expand their technological edge.
  • International OEMs have deep and broad subsystem and component suppliers networks crucial for advanced chipmaking tools. China has yet to develop such an ecosystem.
  • Due to the low adoption of indigenous OEMs and lack of experience, companies are reluctant to use them. China faces difficulty developing advanced tools and cannot meet the technological gap.