FA: 為「圍觀者」辯護(Part 3)

作者:Matias Spektor
來源:Foreign Affairs
日期:Apr 18, 2023


  • 開發中國家偏好避險措施在美國方面有利有弊。避險政策可能會加劇美國、中國和俄羅斯之間的安全競爭。因此,美國可能需要更多地讓步,以吸引開發中國家。
  • 然而,採用避險的政策制定者不太可能永遠站在中國或俄羅斯一邊,他們越來越願意接受與西方的接觸。
  • 美國該如何贏得友誼?
    • 認真解決發展中國家的問題,聆聽其意見。
    • 以謙遜和同理心與發展中國家進行接觸。美國不應強迫他們立即斷絕與中國的關係,而是了解他們的境遇,允許他們測試中國的外交極限。
    • 美國不應自動假設全球南方地區會跟隨他們。所有國家都在國際秩序內追求他們的利益和價值觀,有的甚至反對西方的合法性和公正性觀念。兩方可以共同合作達到互惠互利的結果。
    • 美國和歐洲可以從幫助發展中國家紓解和適應氣候變化開始。他們可以在國際貿易方面進行合作,並提供一個與全球南方更平衡的關係。

The Growing Importance of the Global South

  • The preference for hedging among developing countries has pros and cons to the US. Hedging could amplify the security competition among the US, China, and Russia. Therefore, the US may need to offer more concessions to developing countries to entice them.
  • Yet, hedgers are unlikely to permanently side with China or Russia and are increasingly receptive to engagement with the West.
  • What can the US do to win friends?
    • Address developing nations' concerns seriously and allow them to provide their views.
    • Engage developing countries with humility and empathy. The US should not force them to cut ties with China immediately but understand their predicament and allow them to test the limits of Chinese diplomacy.
    • The US should not automatically assume the global South will follow them. All countries pursue their interest and values within the international order and oppose Western beliefs of legitimacy and fairness. Both can work together to reach mutually beneficial results.
    • The US and Europe can start by helping developing countries mitigate and adapt to climate change. They can cooperate on international trade and provide a more balanced relationship with the global South.