FA: 為「圍觀者」辯護(Part 2)

作者:Matias Spektor
來源:Foreign Affairs
日期:Apr 18, 2023



  • 發展中國家對西方進行避險,是因為它們與大國的歷史並不相容,尤其是美國。
  • 發展中國家不喜歡美國在價值和行動之間不一致的虛偽行為。
    • 美國譴責俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭是反人類罪行,破壞了基於規則的國際秩序。然而,美國向沙烏地阿拉伯提供武器,協助其對抗伊朗在葉門的代理戰爭,犯下了多起戰爭罪行。
    • 全球南方無法接受西方提出的「基於規則的秩序」一說,因為西方經常違反規則或規範,同時要求發展中國家更負責任。
    • 發展中國家認為,美國的行為更多是出於自身利益,而不是對自由主義價值的承諾。美國指責俄羅斯的行動是「民主與專制」的問題,然而美國一直有支持數個專制或獨裁國家。
  • 發展中國家可以批評西方的虛偽行為,因為西方根據道德原則來正當化其行為。然而,它們不能批評中國或俄羅斯,因為這兩個國家並不是用普遍的道德原則來制定政策。


  • 西方認為多極世界是不穩定的,容易發生衝突,他們更喜歡由美國主導單極秩序。然而,後冷戰時期的單極秩序導致了美國與叛亂國家之間的暴力戰爭,甚至引發部分區域性衝突加劇。
  • 在冷戰時期的兩極格局下,美國和蘇聯並沒有進行過重大衝突。然而,他們多次進行代理人戰爭,導致了許多國家的政治暴力事件。
  • 發展中國家認為多極化能夠分散權力,使得它們在強大國家的競爭中獲得更多的空間,避免了大國對小國的強制。大國會試圖控制小國,或是透過讓利來贏得小國的支持。權力的分散讓小國可以在國際組織中表達自己的觀點,提供更廣泛的視角,也增加這些組織的合法性。
  • 然而,多極秩序中的安全競爭可能會迫使大國創造更嚴格的等級制度,限制小國的言論自由。大國還可能抑制小國對公正和平等的呼聲。他們也通過排斥小國,同時要求小國遵守他們的安排來維持他們在全球秩序中的權威。

Hedging against Western Hypocrisy

  • Developing countries hedge against the West because their history with great powers did not bode well, especially the US.
  • Developing countries disliked US hypocrisy that is inconsistent between value and action.
    • The US criticized Russia's invasion of Ukraine as a crime against humanity and disrupting the rule-based international order. However, the US supplied weapons to Saudi Arabia for its proxy war against Iran in Yemen, resulting in various war crimes.
    • The global South cannot accept the Western "rule-based order" proposition when the West frequently violates the rules or norms while asking the developing countries to be more responsible.
    • Developing countries think the US is motivated more by self-interest than by committing to liberal values. The US accuses Russia's action is a "Democracy vs. Autocracy" problem. Yet, the US consistently supported several authoritarian or dictatorship countries.
  • Developing countries can criticize Western hypocrisy in bringing about changes because the West appeal to moral principles to justify their actions. However, they cannot chastise China or Russia because they do not shape their policies based on universal moral values.

Developing Countries Preference for Multipolarity

  • The West believes a multipolar world is unstable and conflict-prone and prefers a US-led unipolar order. However, the post-Cold War unipolarity resulted in violent wars where the US fought against rebel states and allowed minor regional conflicts to intensify.
  • During the bipolar Cold War, the US and Soviet Union did not have major confrontations. However, they engaged in proxy wars, causing political violence in many countries.
  • Developing countries believe multipolarity diffuses power, giving them more breathing space as great powers cannot force their will on small states during an intense great power competition. Great powers will try to captivate smaller states or give concessions to win favors from them. The diffusion of power allows small states to voice their thought in international organizations, providing a wider perspective and increasing the legitimacy of these organizations.
  • However, security competition in the multipolar order may force great powers to create stricter hierarchies, limiting the small states' freedom of opinion. Great powers may also suppress calls for justice and equality from smaller nations. They also maintained their authority on the global order by excluding smaller countries while asking them to abide by their arrangements.