FP: 美國軍方是否有能力從烏克蘭戰爭中吸取教訓?(第二部分

作者/Author(s): Raphael S. Cohen and Glan Gentile 

原文來源/Source: Foreign Policy 

日期/Date: 02/02/2023 

主題/Key Topics : Military, Strategy, Future of War 



  • 美國正在儲備炮彈和高機動性的火箭發射系統,以取代提供給烏克蘭的炮彈和火箭發射器 
  • 俄羅斯沒有將其最新一代飛機部署到烏克蘭領空。因此,到底是匿蹤戰機還是防空系統更有優勢,仍是一個未知數 
  • 美國一些軍事部門接受了俄烏戰爭給予他們的技術教訓,但他們並不一定會接受作戰影響。雖然裝甲戰不可替代,但坦克卻越來越脆弱。海軍陸戰隊停止購買坦克,陸軍仍在採購現代坦克。 
  • 其他需要美國重新思考其當前行動的問題是,美國需要開發新的直升機,投資水面艦艇,以及對人駕駛飛機的承諾。雖然俄羅斯失去了許多直升機和艦艇,無人駕駛飛機在烏克蘭戰爭中占據了主導。但人駕直升機目前仍是必要的。 
  • 美國還必須重新考慮能力與數量之間的平衡,他們是該投資更多的不對稱防禦性武器,還是繼續採購高端但規模較小的系統。烏克蘭的成功證明了以量取勝是很重要的。因為戰爭會造成重大損失。在長期作戰之下,尤其是消耗戰中,彈藥多的一方通常會佔上風。 
  • 目前,與俄羅斯的平台相比,美國的軍事硬體更耐用,也有更多創新地想法可以使用。美國的戰略也表明,它可以迅速打贏,而不是進入長期戰爭。 
  • 美國可以從俄羅斯的失敗中吸取更多教訓,修改其軍事理論,以贏得未來的戰爭。而不是一味地鑽研烏克蘭的成功 
Ukraine's progress in the current war gives the US optimism that their weapons and tactics are working for now. However, whether the US can fully heed the lessons is yet to be seen. 
  • The US is stockpiling artillery shells and mobile rocket launcher systems to replace those provided to Ukraine. 
  • Russia did not deploy its next-generation aircraft into Ukraine's airspace. Therefore, it is still unknown whether stealth aircraft or air defenses have the advantage. 
  • In other instances, some military branches accepted the technological lessons but not the operational implications. Although armored warfare is irreplaceable, tanks are getting more vulnerable. While the Marine Corps halted the purchase of tanks, the Army is still procuring modern ones. 
  • Other issues which require the US to rethink its current operation are the development of new helicopters, investment in surface ships, and commitment to manned aircraft, even though Russia lost many helicopters and vessels, and UAVs dominated the Ukraine war. 
  • The US must also rethink the balance between capability and capacity, whether to invest in more asymmetric defensive weapons or continue procuring high-end but less large systems. Ukraine's success proved numbers are significant, as wars will inflict substantial losses. In a long war, especially a war of attrition, the belligerent with more ammunition prevails. 
  • Currently, US's military hardware is more durable and can be used innovatively compared to Russian platforms. The US strategy also shows that it can win a war quickly and not enter a long battle. 
  • The US can learn more from Russia's failure and revise its military doctrine to win the future war and not delve too much into Ukraine's success.