WotR精準的轟炸:將精準性做為核心來考慮如何擴大彈藥儲備 (Part 2) 

作者/Author(s): Trevor Phillips-Levine, Andrew Tenbusch, Walker D. Mills, Dylan "Joose" Phillips-Levine, and Collin Fox 

原文來源/Source: War on the Rocks 

日期/Date: 01/25/2023 

主題/Key Topics: Military, Drone Warfare, Future of War 



  • 烏克蘭戰爭表明,與大量非制導和不精確的武器相比,精確投擲的炸彈能產生更好的效果。烏克蘭以靈活的戰術和有效使用精確彈藥打亂了俄羅斯的作戰行動。 
  • 理論上,如果空軍能夠準確計算出彈道發射點,並且目標是靜止或等速運動的,那麼空軍就不需要導引彈藥。可是實際上,由於系統使用電腦建模,根據釋放高度預測風速影響,因此會出現計算誤差。戰鬥機可能需要將飛機暴露在敵人的火力下或進行危險的機動以提高運送彈藥時的精度。
  • 導引武器允許操作者在更高或更遠的距離發射彈道,炸彈會自行導航至指定目標,這過程大大降低了飛行員的風險 
  • 然而,如果一個平台或系統,可以讓它的主體秘密接近目標並且不會對人類飛行員構成風險,那麼軍方就不再需要導引彈藥。而這個平台便是無人機,因此武裝無人機聲名鵲起,並引起了人們對微型和遊蕩彈藥的興趣。
  • 微型彈藥是有特定目的但較小型的導引彈藥。因此,它們價格昂貴,生產速度較慢,並且沒有大量的現有庫存 
  • 遊蕩彈藥是將彈藥與無人機結合成一個系統。它們是神風特攻隊的無人機,一旦它們通過手動或自主引導識別目標,它們就會飛入並摧毀目標和自身。與微型彈藥和其他精確武器一樣,它們需要漫長而複雜的後勤輔助,而且價格昂貴。 
  • 還有報導稱,俄烏雙方都面臨補充彈藥的挑戰,導致雙方都缺乏精準彈藥 

System matters on precision, not munition. 
  • The Ukrainian War shows that precisely delivered bombs create better-desired results than large quantities of unguided and imprecise weapons. Ukraine disrupted Russian combat operations with flexible combat tactics and effectively used precision munitions. 
  • In theory, the air force does not need guided munitions if they can accurately calculate the ballistic release point and the target is stationary or moving at a constant speed. In practice, there will be errors since systems use computer modeling to predict the effect of winds based on release altitude. Fighters may need to expose the aircraft to enemy fire or perform risky maneuvers to increase the precision when delivering the munition. 
  • Guided weapons reduce the risks to the pilots by allowing ballistic release at higher altitudes or far distances and allowing bombs to navigate themselves to the target. 
  • However, if a platform (or system) allows it to approach a target stealthily and does not pose a risk to a human pilot, combatants can eliminate the need for guided munition. It brought the use of armed drones to fame and developed interests in micro and loitering munitions. 
  • Micro-munitions are purpose-specific but smaller versions of guided missiles. Therefore, they are pricey, slower to produce, and do not have a large pre-existing stock. 
  • Loitering munitions are munitions combined with a drone into a single system. They are kamikaze drones, meaning they will fly into and destroy the target and itself once they identify a target through manual or autonomous guidance. Like micro-munitions and other precision weapons, they require a long and complex logistical trail, and are expensive. 
  • There are also reports of precision munition shortages in Ukraine and Russia due to the challenges in replenishing them.