Fortune: 「午夜時鐘響起」:中國正在向巴基斯坦與肯亞等數十個國家徵收貸款。(Part 2)

作者:Bernard Condon and the Associated Press
日期:May 19, 2023



  • 中國不認同自己是不寬容貸款人一說,其不斷指責西方並呼籲其他多邊領導人應該免除對這些國家的債務。
  • 中國聲稱它已經對這些國家豁免並延長貸款期限,也提供緊急貸款,以及免除非洲國家的一些無息貸款來協助這些國家。然而,貸款豁免只針對幾十年前的小額貸款。
  • 中國已經顯示出軟化的跡象,但其同時也要求國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行向債務國提供贈款和援助。然而,國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行尚未對中國的要求作出回應,並且不願意進一步妥協,因為它們的貸款已經是很低利率狀態。
  • 中國還否認了「債務陷阱外交」的說法,即在債務國無法償還貸款的情況下扣押其基礎設施和戰略資產。
  • 專家們同意中國的說法,因為多家中國銀行都有對債務國提供貸款,這不太可能是由政府協調的。然而,由於國內房地產貸款問題和中國經濟發展遲緩,這些銀行不願意承擔更多損失。


  • 一些研究人員發現了世界銀行並沒有記錄的中國貸款。
  • 中國旨在通過「金磚倡議」擴大其戰略影響力並確保發展中國家的關鍵材料。
  • 發展中國家希望通過中國的貸款來擴大他們的基礎設施建設,但現在卻發現自己已陷入重債,這可能會阻礙他們未來的借貸機會。
  • 為了幫助發展中國家繼續進行他們的項目,中國建立空殼公司並通過這些公司進行資金調配,這在很長一段時間內都是秘密。然而,當這些項目失敗時,私人債務便成了政府債務。
  • 其中一些項目在關鍵選舉前建在有權勢的政客的家鄉,但其實那沒有什麼經濟意義,而且有的設施有問題。

China's Reaction

  • China denied claims of being an unforgiving lender, blamed the West, and called other multilateral leaders to forgive the debts first.
  • China claimed it assisted those countries by extending loan maturities, providing emergency loans, and forgiving some no-interest loans to African countries. However, the loan forgiveness is for small loans from decades ago.
  • China shows softening signs but demands the IMF and World Bank to offer grants and assistance to the indebted countries. However, IMF and World Bank have yet to respond to China's demand and are unwilling to compromise further since their loans are already at low rates.
  • China also rejected claims of engaging in "debt trap diplomacy," seizing infrastructure and strategic assets in indebted countries if they cannot repay the loans.
  • Experts agree with China's argument because multiple Chinese banks provide loans, which is unlikely to be coordinated by the government. Yet, these banks are unwilling to take further losses due to domestic real estate loan problems and the stunted Chinese economy.

The Secret of Chinese Loans

  • Few researchers uncovered Chinese loans that were undocumented by the World Bank.
  • China aims to expand its strategic influence and secure critical materials in developing countries through the BRI.
  • Developing countries wanted Chinese loans to expand their infrastructure but found themselves heavily indebted now, which may impede their chance of borrowing in the future.
  • To help developing countries continue their projects, China set up shell companies and channeled funds through these companies, which became a secret for a long time. This scheme is uncovered after the projects went bad and the private debt becomes government debt.
  • Some of these projects built in the hometown of powerful politicians before key elections made little economic sense and were problematic.